Answer to Quiz [was entitled "Meaning of" removing "under God"]

Bryan Wildenthal bryanw at
Tue Mar 30 20:05:00 PST 2004

I don't see it as relevant.  The Declaration was a political justificatory statement, not a charter of government.

-----Original Message-----
From: conlawprof-bounces at
[mailto:conlawprof-bounces at]On Behalf Of Scarberry, Mark
Sent: Tuesday, March 30, 2004 3:18 PM
To: 'Conlawprof at'
Subject: Answer to Quiz [was entitled "Meaning of" removing "under God"]

Earlier I wrote:

A quiz. What did Thomas Jefferson, Sam and John Adams, and Benjamin Franklin
all agree on, in writing, that is relevant to this thread?

The Answer:

I fear the question was too easy, since no one tried to answer it. But the
answer is that all four were signatories to the following document. Some of
us may not be as familiar with the final paragraph as with the first two.

"When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to
dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to
assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to
which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect
to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes
which impel them to the separation. 

"We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal,
that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that
among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness....


"We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in
General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for
the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by the Authority of
the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these
United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States;
... And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the
protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives,
our Fortunes and our sacred Honor."

[copied from, which
also includes a list of those who signed on behalf of their states] 

Mark S. Scarberry
Pepperdine University School of Law
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